Traditionally, psychology is concerned with processes that are supposed to take place inside the human mind. Mental events, representations, emotions, motivation are all topics of primary importance, while action has been viewed as a peripheral “output” process. In opposition to this, I argue, and in congruence with some recent developments in cognitive science, we have to value and understand human agency and action as the primary root and goal of our cognitive existence. In what sense is action primary? How does this change of focus affect our undserstanding of the human mind? How does it change the practice of research? What kind of recent research results shed light on the nature of action-oriented cognition? These are the questions I try to address in my talk.